This manuscript is part of the original National Undergraduate Research Clearinghouse Site.
The only information available is what is on this web site. This manuscript has been relocated
to the new Clearinghouse web site. webclearinghouse.net.|
Dornery and Goh (1992) studied the effects of music on physical performance and arousal. The participants listened to two kinds of music: Slow Classical & Moderate Rock (Fast), while playing a “memory game”. There was no significant level of change in heart rate according to the type of music played. The research found that slow classical music caused a slowed heart rate, while the fast music of course incited high rates of heartbeats. If music can change your physical make-up then it can also change your intensity to play any game. Smith and Morris (1997) studied the effects of music on anxiety, concentration, and performance. The two types of music studied were simulative (upbeats) and sedative (slow downbeats). The participants were asked to take a test listening to the music of their choice. The participants were than asked to remember a set of numbers listening to both kinds of music. The participants exposed to the sedative easy listening music did far better than exposed to stimulating music, and both groups did worse with no music group. Smith and Morris (1997) suggest that stimulating music is more distracting and inhibits cognitive processing more than non-stimulating music.
There was another such study done by Hjortsberg (2007) a study on the different types of effects music has on cognitive process. There were three types of music used in this study, classical, moderate rock, and no music at all. The participants were asked to complete a “memory game”. The effects of this experiment were different than pervious because the no music group did the best on the “memory game”, task.
The purpose of this study is having one independent variable with three levels, the Game Music, Popular Hip-Hop Music (rap) and No Music. The dependent variable is the intensity of the play (measured by game score). The hypothesis state that popular hip-hop music will show greater intensity of play than any other group with the game music group follows behind and the no music group being the worst. There is an attempt to show music can cause individuals to play harder.
Thirty-Four college students from Introductory Psychology Class of Missouri Western State University were used in this experiment. These men and women aged from 18-24 yrs of age. Some students received course credit for their participation. However, all students who participated did so, on a voluntary basis. The participants were divided up into groups of two. All groups participated in all three of the musical conditions.
The apparatus used for this experiment was a Sony Play station 2. The video game used “Monkey Ball”, and a Sony portable DVD player for playing CD’s. The music will be from three different groups, the video game music, the popular hip-hop CD of various artists all upbeat sounds and no music at all.
This was an experimental study which involved a single independent variable with three levels in a between subjects design. The independent variable was the music. The three levels were game music, popular hip-hop music and no music at all. The dependent variable was the level of intensity that was based on the score after playing each separate condition. The participants listened to the same songs in their perspective groups with the popular hip-hop music going in random order; also each group played the three conditions in random order to account for extraneous variable that may have come up. The volume level on each of the two musical conditions were the same, the playing time of each condition was five minutes. Once the participants arrived in the research room they were given a practice run to familiarize themselves with the game, and an adequate explanation of how the experiment was going to work. The participants played three times under the three musical conditions, their scores were recorded. An vague description of the reasons for the experiment were given and then the experiment was concluded. The vague reasons were given in order to protect the validity of the study.
Gard, C. (1997) Music n’ Moods [Electronic Version]. Current Health, 23, 24.
Hjostberg, W.R. (2007) The effects of different types of music on cognitive processes. Department of Psychology: http://clearinghouse.missouriwestern.edu.
Smith, C.A., & Morris, L. W. (1997) Differential effects of stimulative and sedative music on anxiety, concentration, and performance. Psychological Reports, 41, 1047-1053
|Author Contact Information:-None-|